Cui Yuanri, Chinese People's Liberation Army Engineering University (450052) designed to introduce residential lighting related content proposed by ISO and CIE related organizations.
In recent years, with the development of the economy and the improvement of the level of science and culture, people have higher and higher requirements for the living environment. The design pursues the harmonious unity of the natural environment and the human environment, embodying the people-oriented, and originating from the true modesty that nature belongs to nature.
Lighting is science and art. The demand for the quality of residential ambient lighting and the artistic demand for lighting effects are concrete manifestations of people's improvement of their quality of life. Human beings are the main body of life. The residential environment refers to the visual environment, auditory environment, olfactory environment and tactile environment that stimulate and influence the human physiological sensing system and mental activity system.
Based on the principles of interior color science and lighting design, this article only discusses the residential color and lighting design that directly affects and stimulates the human visual sensing system.
1 residential color is a physical phenomenon of objects under the action of light.
The first impression of human beings' understanding of the physical world is the sense of color, and then the shape and surface texture and details of the object. Color is the objective existence of nature. Color itself has no thoughts and feelings. However, in the long-term evolution of human beings, color gradually exerts certain influence on people.
Color perception is the ability of human beings to recognize and distinguish colors. It is a sensory organ function that human beings gradually adapt to in the long-term evolution and development process in order to adapt to the colorful and ever-changing world of nature. The formation of color perception must have illumination of light, selective absorption, reflection and transmission of objects, and a normal visual organ system.
All visual images in nature, the shape, size, and spatial position of dynamic or static matter are characterized by the relationship between color and brightness. Studying this visual phenomenon and its internal laws and their applications is the main subject of color science.
Color is a substance that can be calibrated with three elements: hue, lightness, and saturation. The mixing of colors has its objective laws: red, green, blue and other three primary colors are mixed, subject to additive color mixing, and the same amount of red, green and blue light can be mixed to obtain white light, such as color TV white field balance, that is, red Three green and blue electron guns are used to debug the white screen so that the screen displays various colors correctly. The coloring materials are mixed with cyan, magenta and yellow. They are mixed by subtractive color method. The same amount of cyan, magenta and yellow inks can be mixed to obtain black. For example, the different colors of cyan, magenta and yellow ink can be mixed to obtain various colors.
Human beings must not only understand the natural phenomena of color, but also study how to quantitatively describe their properties in order to achieve the goal of color quality control and scientific management. To this end, the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) has proposed the theory of quantitative representation of color, human visual model, color representation space, color measurement and calculation, and related data through actual measurement and research. Such as: CIE1931 standard observer spectral tristimulus values â€‹â€‹and RGB color space and so on. The human eye has different sensitivities to the wavelengths of visible light, and the same optical radiation power has different brightness levels at different spectral positions. Therefore, a visual spectral light efficiency function is proposed to represent the degree of light stimulation of the human eye to different wavelengths of visible light. This is the basis of the human visual model. It is divided into a visual view function and a sacred view function. At present, more emphasis is placed on environmental protection and energy conservation. In order to perfect the optical test system for night illumination, the visual function of intermediate vision is being studied.
Color is a kind of information, but also a feeling, a property of natural beauty. The feeling of color is the most common and popular form of human beauty. Beautiful colors can arouse people's good feelings. For example, the rising sun shines brightly, the blue sky and white clouds grow in the sky, the dark and quiet, the comfortable forest, the blue heart and the blue sea. This is a kind of enjoyment by human beings for the material beauty and spiritual civilization through the beauty of color.
Colors are emotional and symbolic. Color affects people's thoughts, feelings and behavior through human vision. Such as different colors cause cold and warm, far and near, light and heavy feeling.
Different colors produce different feelings, such as red exciting, yellow bright, green and peaceful, blue calm, purple beautiful, brown gentle, white pure, black serious and so on.
People pursue the harmony and beauty of color through the matching of different colors. For example, the color matching created by architectural art, the color matching of a city's macro, the color matching of costumes, and the color matching of arts and crafts are all in order to satisfy people's spiritual needs of pursuing color beauty.
Human feelings about color are also historical, regional and folk. In ancient China, red indicated bloodshed, hunting victory and burning fire, but later, red expressed joy, and red clothing became a symbol of joy and auspiciousness. In China, red has a strong vitality and has not deteriorated for thousands of years. The countries that believe in Islam and the desert areas in the Middle East prefer green. Some countries in Europe like yellow, and North Korea, Japan and other countries like white.
At present, it has entered the electronic age, the information age, the international exchanges have become more frequent, and people's cultural and artistic literacy are getting closer, leading to the prevalence of fashion colors. In order to achieve certain artistic effects and psychological satisfaction, people draw and select some color tones from the colorful colors of nature as a popular color, bringing people a new enlightenment and rich association and beauty enjoyment. The generation of fashion color or fashion color is closely related to the material and cultural life standards of the country and the region. It is an inevitable trend of the high development of human society production, a manifestation of social spiritual civilization, and a part of people's spiritual enjoyment. However, China is still a developing country. In residential color design and lighting design, there are more specific regions and specific folk custom colors, respecting the color preferences and habitual decorative colors under the color setting, and less fashion colors. But it does not mean that it does not absorb fashion colors, there should be a proper match between habitual color and fashion color.
2 Residential lighting A good lighting will create a bright, comfortable, safe and beautiful visual light environment for human settlements. Such a light environment should have a good visual perception of the human eye, that is, visual comfort. Under the conditions of long working hours and harsh working environment, the visual work can be accurately completed, that is, the visual effect is required. Workers can quickly identify the surrounding environment and the dangerous situation at work, that is, meet the requirements of visual safety. Therefore, the principles of indoor lighting design must meet the visual performance requirements of human beings to ensure visual safety and visual comfort.
The relevant working groups of the International Commission on Illumination and the relevant technical chapters of the International Organization for Standardization (CIE/TC3-21 and ISO/TC159/SC5-WG2) jointly drafted the "Indoor Indoor Lighting Standards" and various indoor lightings for reference. Recommended values â€‹â€‹for technical parameters of the light environment. It mainly includes light intensity distribution, illuminance, glare limitation, and square measurement method of light. The following is a brief introduction to several issues related to residential lighting.
The brightness distribution on a given field of view controls the level of light and dark adaptation of the human eye, which directly affects the visibility of the work. A uniform adaptation to brightness improves vision, improves visual clarity and contrast sensitivity, and identifies small differences in brightness. The brightness distribution affects the visual comfort, and excessive brightness can cause glare. The brightness distribution is uneven, making people feel uncomfortable. The light and dark beams that are rotating in the ballroom are harmful to vision. When the brightness contrast is too high, the human eye increases the pupil contraction, focus adjustment, and eye movement to accommodate high-intensity contrast, causing eye fatigue. Too low brightness contrast makes people feel dark and chaotic, creating a dull, depressed atmosphere and losing vitality.
The brightness of the indoor surface is determined by the surface illuminance and the reflectance of the surface material. The reflectance of the main surface is generally: in order to make the normal human eye have a fast, safe and comfortable recognition target, the maintenance illuminance value on the working surface is proposed. . The illuminance maintained on the work surface includes horizontal illumination, vertical illumination, and slope illumination. These illuminance data are necessary for visual function, visual safety, and visual comfort, while also taking into account that the illuminance value and economy can be appropriately adjusted under certain circumstances. If the visual ability of the operator on the work surface is lower than that of the normal person, the corresponding illuminance value level can be adjusted. For continuous work areas, it maintains illumination! 2001<.> Table 1 Work area lighting and work area surrounding lighting value Work area lighting 1 The minimum shading angle of the luminaire to block glare should not be less than the minimum value of Table 2 Value Table 2 Lamp surface brightness (kcd/m2) Minimum shading angle is not The calculation of comfort glare is given by the CIE Unified Glare Rating (UGR) formula:! = solid angle formed by the illuminating part of each luminaire to the observer's eyes, %: The position index (Guth index) of each individual luminaire, depending on the offset of the luminaire from the line of sight.
The value of UGR is: 13 13 represents the minimum discomfort glare value that the human eye has just perceived.
Light curtain reflection and reflected glare refer to the specular reflection of the visual work area, which is harmful to the vision. It should be adjusted by adjusting the lamp, surface decoration material (low-gloss surface material), brightness of the light source, adjusting the working surface and avoiding bright spots. Reflecting glare.
The visual work area has directional illumination to improve visibility and improve three-dimensionality. The three-dimensional sense refers to the balance between diffused light and directional light, and the three-dimensional effect can clearly show the shape and texture of the object. Whether the lighting has a three-dimensional effect is an effective standard for indoor lighting quality assessment. Therefore, indoor lighting should pay great attention to the use of diffused light and directional light in diffused light and directional light, so that indoor objects and different parts of the character should have a contrast of brightness that can produce a three-dimensional effect.
Directional light illumination is applied to the work surface of the fine work area to meet the operational lighting requirements of the details of the work area.
How to accurately display the original color of indoor objects and human skin is very important for visual effects and visual comfort. Therefore, the technical index of the color development characteristics of the light source is proposed. In the indoor lighting with a general color rendering index of 80, people cannot stay for a long time. In order to correctly identify the color, the color rendering index of the indoor lighting that people stay for a long time! The apparent color and color rendering ability of the 80 light is the two characteristic quantities of the lighting light's ability to display color. The color appearance of the lamp can be expressed by the correlated color temperature Tcp: 3 A case of residential lighting is based on the unit type, area index and lighting requirements of the â€œGeneral Rules for the Design of China's Urban Well-off Housing System (WHOS)â€ prepared by the Ministry of Construction's Residential Construction Research Department. A residential design such as the interior color and lighting design shown. The house is a four-bedroom, two-bedroom, with a lanai in each of the north and south, with a total construction area (including a shared area) of 150 m2, as shown by the selected lamps.
The residential indoor light environment is generated by interior color and illumination beams. The designer should carry out the scientific art lighting arrangement and color application based on the basic attributes of color beauty to achieve the functional lighting necessary for work and life, and try to create a family atmosphere of harmony, joy and health.
The interior decoration is light-colored (such as beige, etc.), and is decorated with matching tones in wall skirts and laces, doors and windows, and floors.
The diversity of functional use in the living room requires a variety of lighting methods to meet different needs. The living room is turned on for a long time, and energy-saving light sources and lamps should be used to save energy. If the conditions permit, it is best to use the chandelier controlled by the two-tone remote control switch. It is better to use a warm color light source with a lower color temperature (about 2800k) and a ~6000k cold white light source with a higher color temperature. According to the temperature, it can regulate the lighting of warm and cold colors, warm light in winter and cold white in summer, which is the basic lighting of the living room. Auxiliary lights and spotlights are placed at appropriate locations on the wall for watching television and illuminating art exhibits. The use of direction light produces a sigh, the shadow produces a good three-dimensional feeling IblishingH (the main bedroom should use a color temperature s28. The warm white light ii lamp cover lamp type description 5 (diameter and height in mm + LBC54616 genus decorative lantern, Light source can be used OSRAM40W (E14) bulb x6 lamp (or 3 lights for warm and cold colors), HAZC9978AL remote control ceiling lamp, 32W incandescent color ring fluorescent tube, 220V, 400, high 107, HAC9994AL ceiling lamp 22W three primary color ring fluorescent It is advisable to use the upward-reflective type, and the incandescent lamp without a lampshade can be used, otherwise it will cause anxiety. On the bedside table and the dressing table, the warm-colored table lamp will be lighted to facilitate the communication between the husband and the wife and form a warm atmosphere. The entrance and exit of the bedroom are installed. Auxiliary lights for easy access and create a peaceful family atmosphere.
Low color temperature and low wattage lights should be placed on the wall of the entrance and the height of the person. When watching TV in the bedroom, the indoor auxiliary light should be turned on. The light should not reflect from the surface of the screen to the human eye to form glare. The brightness of the auxiliary light can be compared with the brightness of the human eye. For example, in general, 50lx can achieve a contrast of brightness for comfortable viewing. If you watch TV in the living room, you should also turn on the auxiliary light to create a relaxed visual environment and enhance your viewing interest.
The bedroom in which the child is staying is slightly different from the main bedroom. The decorative paintings can be decorated according to the gender and age of the child, and the rest are similar to the main bedroom.
The main bathroom is equipped with a cool white (color temperature 4000k) ceiling lamp, and a low color temperature light source is placed on the wall of the hand washing. The brightness should be bright enough to make people feel comfortable and there is no insecurity when taking a bath. Only one ceiling lamp (color temperature 4000~5000k) can be set in the second bathroom.
The desk or work room uses special desk lamps and auxiliary lamps to achieve the lighting environment for visual work. The table lamp should be equipped with a lampshade or a three-color fluorescent lamp. The color temperature is about 2800k, and the illumination on the work surface reaches 500lx. jobs.
The kitchen should use a warm light source (color temperature of about 2800k), you can take a ceiling lamp, but you must have sufficient illumination, such as 200lx, in order to correctly display the true color of food, increase appetite. The restaurant lights should be placed directly above the dining table so that the lights illuminate the entire table area, and the family sits around the table to create a warm and harmonious atmosphere. In order to make the diners feel at ease to eat, there is no uneasiness, and there should be enough bright light around the dining room.
The lighting wattage of each room in the residential bedroom should be determined according to the size of the room and the size of the space. The light source, lamps and supporting electrical appliances should be energy-efficient, safe and reliable 3C certified high-quality lighting products certified by green lighting.
A scientific and reasonable residential lighting and color application will enhance people's life through information such as color and brightness, and form a safe and peaceful family atmosphere to improve people's quality of life.
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